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Colombia

Colombia ( , or ), officially the Republic of Colombia ( ), is a country on the northwestern coast of South America, bordered to the northwest by Panama; to the north by the Caribbean Sea; to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; and to the west by the Pacific Ocean. It is a Unitary state, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two Departments of Colombia.

The territory of what is now Colombia was originally inhabited by Indigenous peoples in Colombia including the Muisca, Quimbaya civilization, and Tairona. The Spanish arrived in 1499 and initiated a period of Spanish conquest of the Chibchan Nations ultimately creating the Viceroyalty of New Granada, with its capital at Bogotá. Independence from Spain was won in 1819, but by 1830 "Gran Colombia" had collapsed with the secession of Venezuela and Ecuador. What is now Colombia and Panama emerged as the Republic of New Granada. The new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation (1858), and then the United States of Colombia (1863), before the Republic of Colombia was finally declared in 1886. Separation of Panama from Colombia in 1903.

Colombia is ethnically diverse, the descendants of the original Indigenous peoples in Colombia inhabitants, Spanish people colonists, African Colombian originally brought to the country as slaves, and 20th-century Emigration from Europe and the Arab diaspora in Colombia have produced a diverse cultural heritage. This has also been influenced by Colombia's varied geography, and the imposing landscape of the country has resulted in the development of very strong regional identities. The majority of the urban centres are located in the highlands of the Andes, but Colombian territory also encompasses Amazon rainforest, Los Llanos (South America) and both Caribbean and Pacific coastlines.

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