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Mexico

Mexico (; ), officially the United Mexican States is a federal republic in North America. Borders of Mexico on the north by the United States of America; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of Mexico.Covering almost two million square kilometres (over 760,000 sq mi), Mexico is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the List of countries by area. With an estimated population of over 113 million,it is the List of countries by population and the Hispanophone#Hispanosphere country in the world and the second most populous country in Latin America. Mexico is a federation comprising Administrative divisions of Mexico and a Mexico City, the capital city.

In pre-Columbian Mexico many cultures matured into advanced civilizations such as the Olmec, the Toltec, the Teotihuacan, the Zapotec civilization, the Maya civilization and the Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire the territory from its base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, which was administered as the Viceroyalty of New Spain. This territory would eventually become Mexico following recognition of the colony's Mexican War of Independence in 1821. The post-independence period was characterized by Economic history of Mexico#Independence, the Mexican-American War that led to the Territorial evolution of Mexico to the United States, the Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a Reform War, Emperor of Mexico and List of Presidents of Mexico#Porfiriato. The latter led to the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the Constitution of Mexico and the emergence of the country's current Politics of Mexico. In March 1938, through the Mexican oil expropriation private United States and United Kingdom-Netherlands oil companies were nationalized to create the state-owned Pemex oil company.

Mexico has one of the world's largest economies, it is the tenth largest oil producer in the world, the largest silver producer in the world and is considered both a regional power and middle power.

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