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Peru (; or Piruw;Quechua name used by government of Peru is Perú , but common Quechua name is Piruw ), officially the Republic of Peru (, ), is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean.

Peruvian territory was home to Ancient Peru spanning from the Norte Chico civilization, one of the oldest in the world, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and Viceroyalty of Peru with its capital in Lima, which included most of its South American colonies. After Independence of Peru in 1821, Peru has undergone periods of political unrest and fiscal crisis as well as periods of stability and economic upswing. Economic cycles have mostly been based on the extraction of raw materials like Guano Era (1845–1866) and Amazon rubber boom (ca. 1900).

The Peruvian population, estimated at 30.4 million, is Multiethnic society, including Indigenous Peoples in Peru, White Latin American, African Latin American and Asian Latin American. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua languages or other Indigenous languages of the Americas. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.

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