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Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic (), is a Unitary state Semi-presidential system republic. It is located in South-Western Europe, on the Iberian Peninsula, and it is the westernmost country of mainland Europe, being bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west and south and by Spain to the north and east. Aside from continental Portugal, the Portuguese Republic holds sovereignty over the Atlantic archipelagos of Azores and Madeira, which are autonomous regions of Portugal. The country is named after its second largest city, Porto, whose name derives from Latin Portus and Celtic Cale.

The land within the borders of the current Portuguese Republic has been continually fought over and settled since Prehistoric Iberia. The Celts and the Roman Republic, followed by the Visigoths and Suebian domination, and the Moors invaders, who were eventually expelled during the Reconquista.
Portugal by 1139 established itself as an Kingdom of Portugal from Kingdom of Galicia.In the 15th and 16th centuries, as the result of pioneering the Age of Discovery, Portugal expanded Western Civilization influence and established the first Portuguese Empire, becoming one of the world's major economic, political and military Education superpower, and ultimately Treaty of Tordesilhas.

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