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Turkey

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Turkey , officially the Republic of Turkey is a contiguous List of transcontinental countries, located mostly on Anatolia in Western Asia, and on East Thrace in Southeastern Europe. Turkey is bordered by eight countries: Bulgaria to the northwest; Greece to the west; Georgia (country) to the northeast; Armenia, Iran and the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the southeast. The Mediterranean Sea is to the south; the Aegean Sea is to the west; and the Black Sea is to the north. The Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles (which together form the Turkish Straits) demarcate the boundary between Thrace and Anatolia; they also separate Europe and Asia.

Turkey has been inhabited since the paleolithic, including various Ancient Anatolians civilizations and Thracians peoples. After Alexander the Great's conquest, the area was Hellenization, which continued with the Roman Empire rule and the transition into the Byzantine Empire. The Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, starting the process of Turkification, which was greatly accelerated by the Seljuk victory over the Byzantine Empire at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. The Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol conquest of Anatolia in 1243, upon which it disintegrated into several small Anatolian beyliks.

Starting from the late 13th century, the Ottomans united Anatolia and created an empire encompassing much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa, becoming a major power in Eurasia and Africa during the early modern period. After the Ottoman Empire collapsed following its defeat in World War I, parts of it were occupied by the victorious Allies of World War I. The Turkish War of Independence, initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues, resulted in the establishment of the modern Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president.

Turkey is a democracy, secular state, unitary state, Republic with a diverse cultural heritage.

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